Nigeria’s Inflation Hits Multi-Decade High at 27.3%, Food Inflation at 31.5%

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Nigeria’s inflation has reached a new multi-decade high, hitting 27.3% in October, defying global trends. The surge is particularly concerning for stakeholders due to the impact of food inflation, which rose to 31.5%, potentially pushing more individuals below the poverty line. The country’s inflationary pressures are attributed to factors such as currency losses, delayed and insufficient monetary response, and fiscal expansionism. Experts stress the need for strengthened exchange rate management, economic diversification, and policies to promote domestic production as potential solutions.

Key Points:

  1. Record-High Inflation:
    • Nigeria’s inflation has surged to a multi-decade high of 27.3% in October, defying global trends.
  2. Concerns Over Food Inflation:
    • Food inflation has risen to 31.5%, raising concerns about its impact on households and the potential to increase poverty levels.
  3. Global Food Expenditure:
    • Nigeria is reported to have the highest food expenditure among countries, with an estimated 60% of total personal income spent on food.
  4. Exchange Rate Challenges:
    • Currency losses, especially on the parallel market, are identified as a major driver of imported inflation. The Nigerian Naira has lost about 40% of its value since June.
  5. Experts’ Projections:
    • The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) projects that inflation will remain high at 23.6% in 2024. Factors include currency losses, delayed monetary response, and fiscal expansionism.
  6. Calls for Economic Diversification:
    • Experts emphasize the need for strengthened exchange rate management and policies promoting economic diversification to reduce dependency on imports.
  7. Challenges to Local Manufacturing:
    • Despite calls for economic diversification, challenges such as the rising cost of energy continue to hinder local manufacturing efforts.
  8. Recommendations for Policy Action:
    • Suggestions include implementing effective trade policies, tariff adjustments, import quotas, and strategic trade agreements to regulate imports and manage their impact on inflation.
  9. Reactions to Inflation Data:
    • Economists and experts express concerns about the inefficiency of current strategies, emphasizing the importance of promoting production over consumption.
  10. CBN’s Response:
    • The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) expresses optimism, pointing to the low rate of increase in average prices in October compared to September, indicating that monetary tightening and money market reforms are yielding results.
  11. Month-on-Month Changes:
    • CBN spokesman Dr. Isa AbdulMumin highlights a drop in month-on-month changes in October, suggesting a deceleration in prices and the impact of reforms in the money market.

Nigeria’s inflation hitting a multi-decade high raises significant concerns about its impact on households, especially considering the spike in food inflation. The challenges are attributed to various factors, including currency losses and delayed policy responses. Addressing these challenges requires a multi-faceted approach, including strengthened exchange rate management, economic diversification, and policies that promote domestic production. The effectiveness of these measures will be crucial in mitigating the inflationary pressures and fostering economic stability.


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